Skin Acne

Skin Acne


Skin Acne


Table of Contents

Introduction 2

Questions 2

Causes of acne 2

Sign & Symptoms 3

Research methods 3

Types of acne 3

Treatment of acne 4

Conclusion 6

References 7


Acne is the condition of the skin that happens when the hair follicles turn into plugged with the oil and debris of skin cells. It commonly leads to whiteheads, blackheads or the pimples, and commonly seem on the individual’s face, forehead areas, chest, the upper side of the back and shoulder. Acne related issues are more common among teenagers; however, it impacts the individuals of every age (Le et al., 2017). In this particular assessment report causes, sign and symptoms, research, types of acne, and treatment will be discussed.


What causes acne?

What treatments are available?

What Types of acne are there?

Causes of acne

It can be caused by production of excess oil, hair follicles bunged up by the oil and dead cells of the skin, bacteria, and extra activity of androgens. The skins cells the sebum and the hair can cluster together into the plug. This particular plug gets contaminated by the bacteria and results in swelling. The pimples begin to grow when the plug starts to rupture down. The bacterium responsible for causing acne is Propionibacterium Acnes, which establish on the skin and contributes to infecting the pimples (Dessinioti & Katsambas, 2017). Different researches recommend that the seriousness and occurrence of acne are based upon the bacteria strain, although not all the acne bacteria stimulate pimples. Extreme sebum further breaks down the cellular walls present in the pores allowing the bacteria to multiply (Danby, 2015).

Sign & Symptoms

Certain of the symptoms associated with acne comprise

  • Whiteheads (that are actually the closed plugged pores)
  • Blackheads or the open plugged pores
  • Tiny red, tender bumps also called papules
  • Pimples that are papules in addition with pus at the tips
  • Larges, solid, aching lumps underneath the skin surface (Dhuin, Kerrouche, Arsonnaud & Soto, 2015).

Research methods

Data has been collected from different sources including publication of government, microbiology journal. Google scholar has been used to retrieve the information.

Types of acne

Blackheads: these are the small back or yellowish coloured bumps that grow on the skin surface; these types of acne not contain dirt but are dark due to its inner hair follicle lining that produces pigmentation.

Whiteheads: whiteheads have the exact appearance as blackheads, however, might be firmer and will not remove when squeezed. The acne-causing bacteria might spread to the other parts of the skin (Kontochristopoulos & Platsidaki, 2017).

Papules: these are small red coloured bumps that might sense tender or sore. Dermatologists recommend avoiding the spread of the bacteria. Papules occur when the hair follicle walls, what we frequently call the pore, ruptures. Due to this the cellular debris and bacteria spill into the dermis

Pustules: these are the pus-filled type of bumps on the skin surface due to the bacterial infection takes place in pores.

Nodules: these large hard types of lumps that established underneath the skin surface and may cause pain

Cysts: These types of spot developed by the acne look similar to the boils and have a higher risk or developing permanent scarring. These can be developed when the pores are clogged through the combination of bacteria, cell debris and bacteria (Fiedler, Stangl, Fiedler & Taube, 2017).

Treatment of acne

Acne can be treated using medicines and different therapies. Some of the medication can be provided to treat acne are benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics etc.

Benzoyl peroxide functions as the antiseptic to decrease the bacterial population or colonies on the skin surface. It mostly treats whiteheads and blackheads and may generate an anti-inflammatory impact. It is usually available in the form of cream or gel.

Anti-androgen agents: medicines like spironolactone or Aldactone might be considered for the females and teenage girls if the oral antibiotic is not effective in treating acne. It functions by blocking the impacts of androgen hormones occurs on the sebaceous gland (Marson & Baldwin, 2019).

Retinoid: retinoid removes the dead cells of the skin for the skin surface and helps in preventing the establishment of these agents inside the hair follicles. Examples of retinoid are tretinoin and adapalene

Antibiotics: as bacteria is the main factor for causing acne, antibiotics can be more effective in reducing the number of bacteria on the skin by killing them. Antibiotics are available in the form of lotion or gels that can be applied one or two times a day. The antibiotic gel must be used for six to eight weeks; however, there is a possibility of microbial build-up in the skin after stopping the treatment (Lebeer et al., 2018).

Antibiotic tablets can also be used in the combination of topical treatments to kill the acne causing bacteria, Tetracycline is usually prescribed.

Isotretinoin: it has various benefits on including; it helps in normalising the sebum, prevent the follicles to become clogged, reduced the bacteria amount on the skin, and decreases the redness and swelling around the spot (Dréno, 2017).

Non-pharmaceutical treatment can also be used to treat acne. Comedone extractors are the small pen-like instrument that cleans out the blackhead as well as whiteheads. Chemical peels include the use of chemical that causing the old skin to peel off and fresh skin to replace it. Photodynamic therapy includes the usage of light on the skin to address acne symptoms (Lundahl, 2016).

It has been also reported on different websites that toothpaste can also be used to dry up the Individual spot. White toothpaste contains antibacterial elements that might be effective to kill the bacteria, although clinicians do not recommend using toothpaste in this way (Gao, & Liu, 2019).


In conclusion, acne is the skin ailment that takes place when the hair follicles turn into plugged in addition to oil and dead skin. Acne can be caused when the bacteria (e.g. Propionibacterium Acnes) infect the skin pores with the accumulation of dead cells and oils. The sign and symptoms of acne include open plugged pores, inflammation of pores, pimples on the skins, and accumulation of pus. The acne can be of different type including blackheads, whiteheads, papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts. The treatment can beneficial in acne includes hormone therapy, antibiotics, retinoid etc.


Danby, F. W. (2015). Acne: causes and practical management. John Wiley & Sons.

Dessinioti, C., & Katsambas, A. (2017). Propionibacterium acnes and antimicrobial resistance in acne. Clinics in dermatology35(2), 163-167.

Dhuin, J. C., Kerrouche, N., Arsonnaud, S., & Soto, P. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,132,139. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Dréno, B. (2017). What is new in the pathophysiology of acne, an overview. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology31, 8-12.

Fiedler, F., Stangl, G. I., Fiedler, E., & Taube, K. M. (2017). Acne and nutrition: a systematic review. Acta dermato-venereologica97(1), 7-9.

Gao, M., & Liu, C. (2019). Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine for the Treatment of Acne Associated Blepharokeratoconjunctivitis Case 1. Journal of Clinical and Nursing Research3(1).

Kontochristopoulos, G., & Platsidaki, E. (2017). Chemical peels in active acne and acne scars. Clinics in dermatology35(2), 179-182.

Le Cleach, L., Lebrun-Vignes, B., Bachelot, A., Beer, F., Berger, P., Brugere, S., … & Guigues, B. (2017). Guidelines for the management of acne: recommendations from a French multidisciplinary group. The British journal of dermatology177(4), 908.

Lebeer, S., Oerlemans, E., Claes, I., Wuyts, S., Henkens, T., Spacova, I., … & Allonsius, C. (2018). Topical cream with live lactobacilli modulates the skin microbiome and reduce acne symptoms. bioRxiv, 463307.

Lundahl, S. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,387,341. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Marson, J. W., & Baldwin, H. E. (2019). An Overview of Acne Therapy, Part 2: Hormonal Therapy and Isotretinoin. Dermatologic clinics37(2), 195-203.

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